Siddhartha Gautama, most commonly referred to as the Buddha, was a wandering ascetics and religious teacher who lived in South Asia during the 6th or 5th century BCE and founded Buddhism.
According to Buddhist tradition, he was born in Lumbini, in what is now Nepal, to royal parents of the Shakya clan, but renounced his home life to live as a wandering ascetic (Sanskrit: śramaṇa). After leading a life of begging, ascetism, and meditation, he attained enlightment at Bodh Gaya in what is now India. The Buddha thereafter wandered through the lower Indo-Gangnetic plan, teaching and building a monastic order. He taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and severe asceticism, leading to Nirvana, that is, freedom from ignorance, craving, . His teachings are summarized in the Noble Eightfold Path, a training of the mind that includes ethical training and meditative practises such as sense, kindness towords others, mindfullness, and jhana / dhyana (meditation proper). He died in Kushinagar, attaining paranirvana. The Buddha has since been venerated by numerous religions and communities across Asia.
A couple of centuries after his death, he came to be known by the title Buddha, which means “Awakened One” or “Enlightened One.” His teachings were compiled by the Buddhist community in the Vinaya, his codes for monastic practice, and the Sutta Pitaka, a compilation of teachings based on his discourses. These were passed down in middl dialects through an oral tradition. Later generations composed additional texts, such as systematic treatises known as Abhidharma, biographies of the Buddha, collections of stories about his past lives known as Jataka Tales, and additional discourses, i.e., the mahayana sutras.
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